The Loop Journal
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The Loop: The Journal for Fly Casting Professionals is a quarterly publication of FFI Casting Instructor Certification Program (CICP). It has been published in one form or another for more than 20 years. The Loop is a digital magazine, a medium through which the talents, knowledge, and ideas of our fly casting professionals can be shared.

Many of the world’s most notable and informed casting instructors have written for The Loop, which makes it a wealth of information for those who wish to learn the basics of fly casting. And, it is an invaluable resource for fly casters who want to learn to teach fly casting and fly fishing.

The Loop  is published electronically and it is available to all FFI members. Members receive notice by email. New and older editions can be read online or downloaded to your computer as a pdf file.

The Loop staff:

  • Jim Wigington, MCI,  Editor-in-Chief, Redding, California, USA
  • Bintoro Tedjosiswoyo, CI, THMCI, Art and Graphics Editor, Melbourne, VIC, AU
  • Bruce Richards, CBOGE, MCI, Associate Editor, Ennis, MT, USA
  • Paul Brown, MCI, THMCI, Associate Editor, Upton Wirral, Merseyside, UK.
  • Mac Brown, MCI, Technical Advisor, Bryson City, NC, USA
  • Chuck Iossi, CI, Associate Editor, Teton Valley, ID, USA

For editorial submissions, email Jim Wigington, Editor-in-Chief, at

Click here for submisson guidelines and "The Loop" policies.


Click Here to Enjoy Special Issue April 2024


This special issue of The Loop presents for the first time a comprehensive set of definitions for both single hand and two hand casting. The definitions are the result of extensive work by a Definitions Team that reviewed existing definitions, updated them as needed, and added new definitions. A transition is underway to incorporate the new definitions into Casting Instructor Certification exams and study guides. The schedule for this transition is provided in the Forward of the special issue.


Enjoy and thanks for reading.

The Loop Staff


Please click on the title to download a past edition you want to access. 
2024 - 04 - Apr - SpecialThis special issue of The Loop presents for the first time a comprehensive set of definitions for both single hand and two hand casting. The definitions are the result of extensive work by a Definitions Team that reviewed existing definitions, updated the
2023 - 12 - Dec - 2023 - MayJonathan Walters and co-authors provide an overview of the new Fly Casting Education Program (FCEP) and answer frequently asked questions about the changes. In addition, Gary Borger explores the ways in which the fly rod tip controls fly casts, and Bruce
2023 - 01 - Jan - 2023 MayMacauley Lord describes and shows how tablet computers can be used as a mirror to help students self-correct their casting motions. Chris King discusses advantages and disadvantages of various ways to grip fly rods. Bruce Richards offers insights into how
2022 - 12 Dec - 2022 MayBruce Richards discusses how fly-casting loops work. Caleb Higdon describes the influence of variable air density of fly casting. Rick Shelton and six co-authors, all recent certified Casting Instructors (CIs), offer advice on preparing for CI certificati
2022 - 04 Apr - 2021 DecJonathan Walter, chair of the Casting Board of Governors, provides an overview of the Casting Instructor Certification Program (CICP) activities, and Jody Martin and Audrey Wilson summarize the first CICP Community Gathering. Gary Turri, a new MCI, descri
2021 - 06 June - 2021 NovemberA collection of articles by Mark Surtees & Will Shaw on fly casting instruction that will stimulate your thinking about the best ways to teach fly casting. An article by Rick Williams that provides very helpful practice cards for the two new two-hand cast
2020 - 12 Dec - 2021 MayThis issue of The Loop includes an overview of the FFI casting program and the casting mechanics and uses of wide loops. A new CI’s test experiences and new two hand casting exams are described. Finally, three men share the profound influence that Joe Bro
2020 - 03 Mar - 2020 NovA new tool for roll-casting practice, An interview with Guide Susan Thrasher on her new book, The continuing wisdom of Mel Krieger, Flats Fishing in a land-locked state.
2019 - 10 Oct - 2020 FebIn this issue, Macauley Lord challenges the perceived history and rise of the dogma of the Five Essentials in FFI./Kenneth Chia reports on the first major CICP event in China./Testing and Taimen Adventures with Peter Morse./Europe's Power Couple, Lasse an
2019 - 04 Apr - 2019 JulPaul Brown reports on Casting for Recovery and the healing power of fly fishing for women recovering from breast cancer. Mike Heritage explains why it is sometimes beneficial for his students and potential instructor candidates to find another mentor. Ja
2018 11 Nov - 2019 MarchMentoring for CICP Exams by FFI Mentoring Committee, Int'l FF Festival in Malaysia 2018 by Brandon Ho, New MCI Test Instructor's Challenge by Pietro Bruneilli
2018 - 06 June - 2018 OctoberFly Casting Skills Challenge by CBOG | The Dancing Master by Sekhar Bahadur | Fly Fishing in Northeast China by Ang Wee Kiong
2018 - 03 Mar - 2018 AprilHelpful Acronym by Paul Brown | Just Follow Me by Altor Coteron | Rod Tip Path Control
2017 - 12 Dec - 2018 FebNew MCI Test, The Problem of Proprioception and the Cure of Paradoxical Intention, Changes in CICP Test Scheduling, and more...
2017 - 04 April - JulyThe Double Haul by Bruce Richards, Casting Master Then and Now: Lefty Kreh by Mac Brown, Organizing and Coordinating a Regional EDP Training and CICP Testing Event by Tom Rueping
2017 - 01 January-MarchCasting Masters Then and Now: Gary A. Borger by Bruce Morrison, The Paradox of Loop by Bill Keister, The Wave adn the Shoal by Chris O'Byrne and more...
2016 - 10 OctoberCasting Masters Then and Now: Bruce Richards, Fly Fishing in China, Awards and recognitions, and more
2016 - 07 JulyThrow a Good Cast by Jim Sommercorn, Casting Masters Then and Now: Bill and J.W. (Jay) Gammel by Sekher Bahadur, Teaching Preparation and Presentation by Paul Brown
2016 - 05 MayCasting Stroke Explained by Bruce Richards, Masters of the Sport: Charles Jardine The Gentleman of British Fly Fishing by Paul Brown, 8-Weight Rod Shootout by Dusty Sprage, CICP Comes to South Africa
2016 - 02 FebruaryMCI Committee Seeks and Evaluates Input. The Drag Explained by Bruce Richards. From The Roof of The World Casting to The Golden Goddess of The Himalayas by Misty Dhillon. New Editors Added to The Loop
2015 11 - NovemberCasting Masters Then and Now: Mel Krieger -- #4 in our series on Casting Icons by The Loop's Bruce Morrison. New Approved Casting Definitions for All IFFF Instructors by Tim Lawson. The Dry Fly Spey By Christopher Rownes and Juergen Friesenhahn, includes
2015 07 - JulyCasting Masters Then and Now: A Interview With Joan Salvato Wulff by R. Bruce Morrison • The new IFFF Interactive Casting Instructor’s Map • CBOG Surveys on Testing Experiences and Program Upgrades by by Willy George and Todd Somsel • FLY FISHING - A Di
2015 04 - AprilWe Continue With Our Icons of Fly Casting Interviews. This Month, R. Bruce Morrison Interviews Instructor Extraordinaire Al Kyte. The UK's Chris Aldred Revisits the Double Spey in Another Look at The Fundamental Two-Handed Cast And Perhaps Fly Fishing's M
2015 01 - JanuaryLearn how the CICP program works in Russia from Swedish Instructor Thomas Berggren. Learn how internationally recognized fly casting instructors and examiners approach practicing in part 2 of Chuck Easterling’s article, Practicing for Exceptional Performa
2014 10 - OctoberChuck Easterling talks to top casting teachers and coaches. Read Carl McNeill's Fluoro vs Mono. Part 2 of Dayle Mazarella's series and much more.
2014 07 July Moving Fish - A Memorable Flats Prep School by John Field, Relax by Sheila Hassan and IMPROVE YOUR TEACHING SKILLS USING A PREVIEW AND SUMMARY by Gail Donoghue Gallo and so much more!
2014 03 - MarIn Loops 101, Fly Casting Author Mac Brown Observes That Fly Line Loops Often Change Throughout the Cast. Media Editor Carl McNeil in His New Column Media Watch. Carl’s Column Will Lead You To Some of the Internet and Digital Media’s Best Videos, Books,
2013 12 - DecMark Huber, The Anchor is Everything: ". . .casting any fly line is less about the amount of power applied and more about the overall efficiency of the cast." Syd Smith, Teaching the Dance: “ I imagine that all of us have, in the teaching of an all day i
2013 09 - SeptLoop Dynamics by Soon Lee; Index-on-top Grip by Joe Mahler; Overhead Casting With TH Rod by Peter Charles; Roll Cast by Larry Allen; Teaching The Hearing Impaired by Robert Stouffer; Guide Turns Teacher by Whitney Gould; Evolution Of A Casting Instructor
2013 06 - JuneCasting And Using The French Leader Technique Frank Williams; Train It and Trust It Peter Hayes ;Rod Round Robin Craig Buckbee; The Short Stop Drill Larry Allen; Continuous Education: Presentation and Style Brian McGlashan; What Is Stop? Soon S. Lee and m
2013 03 - March"What Is Casting Stroke?" By Soon S. Lee; "My THCI Journey" by Bintoro Tedjosiswoy; "The Basic Roll Cast" by Leslie Holmes; "An Aussie Saltwater Primer" by Peter Morse; "DMAIC A Teaching Methodology" by Jeff Wagner; "Velcro Trout" by Trent Jones; and more
2012 12 - DecNew Editorial Board for The Loop; Letters; "Loops" by Soon Lee; "Creep" by Tim Lawson; "Double Haul" by David Leger; "Evolution" by Soon Lee; CICP activities; Bulletin Board.
2012 #2 SpringGordy Hill Goes Tarpon Fishing, Half Haul, How to Be a Happier Fly Fisher II, Brain Research & Casting Instruction II, Reel Sox, Casting Stroke Myth, Casting Entropy & 2012 Int. FlyFishing Fair, Books-Bill Higashi, The Five Essentials for Loop Control,
2012 #1 WinterPreparing for the CI Exam, Two Ideas to Increase Fish Hook-Ups, Is That a Video Camera in Your Pocket, Tip Travel - The Long and Short of It, The Proven Rod, Brain Research & Casting Instruction
2011 WinterContraDistinctions of Terms, teaching Loop Dynamics to Beginners, The Casting Coach, Crossword Puzzle, Nomination for Awards, Pearls, Ground School, New Casting Forum, Ad Day on the River, Roll Cast Anchor and Euro-Clave
2011 SummerCatch & Release, Who Invented the Double Haul?, Fly Line Tapers, Wearing the Colors, Two Indicators for Instructors, Essentials-Don't Be a Slacker, Mike Heritage blog, Reel Good Food, Pearls, A Pocket Tool, Monday, August 29th
2011 SpringVolunteer Retention, The First Essential, Straight Talk-Exploring SLP, Malaysia 2011, Dr. Ling, Two Flycasters on a Skiff, CFR 2011 Fundraiser, Pearls 1-4, Mike Heritage blog, A Cool Tool, Austria gathering, From the Editor
2011 FallEuro Clave 2011, CICP Mentoring Award, Essentially Keep Up the Pace, Gong Compact & Light, FFF 101, A Millimeter of Time, Pearls, Teaching the Salt Water Cast, Greeting from Malaysia, the 7 Core Casting Concepts, From the Editor, Attn: All CICP Members
2010 WinterFly Day in Russia, adaptive FC Techniques-Pt.2, the Process of Testing-The Masters Test, Reachout Efforts in Japan, Backcast Tips, Teaching Rollcasts, The End of August, A Meeting With Martin Klemm, Pearls, Australian FF Conclave, The Morgan Twitch
2010 SummerHistory of the Program, Big Timber, Pearls, Making Adjustment on the Fly, Gordy & the Casting Bear, CICP Communications, Adaptive Casting Instruction - Shoulder Problems, Serbia Workshop
2010 SpringSubstance & Style, Comfort Zone, Adaptive Fly Casting instruction-Part 3, Casting the Mendoza Line and more...
2010 FallContinuing Your Certification, Acronyms for the Program, Move the Rope, BSA Merit Badge, In Pursuing Excellence, What is Load?, Overhead Casting Faults, CICP Handout, Danish Fly Festival
2009 WinterLightning & Electricity, Casting Pleasures, Curves at Your Fingertips, Smart Casts, My THCI Journey, Pearls from Master Study Group, Leaders-A Compilation, Leaders in Denmark-UK for Testing
2009 SummerFive Essentials, Avoiding Casting Injuries, Quest for Perfect Loops, Preparing for Certification, Outside Looking In, Teaching 7 Principles of Fly Casting, Pearls, and more...
2009 SpringNew Paradigm for Teaching Casting, An Efficient Cast, Music, Rhythm and Learning the Double Haul, Got Students?, Avoiding Casting Injuries, Qualify the Pause, An Audience With Joan Wulff, Coordinating Workshops and Testing, and much more
2009 FallCI Testing Protocol, Adaptive Fly Casting, My Favorite Spey Teaching Tool, Sanp-Slip Spey, Teaching on the Water, Cert. Events in Hungary & Sweden, Judging a Guide by Its Cover, Pearls, MCI Test Prep-It's About the Journey & more...
2008 WinterCast Scripting for the THCI Exam, Using Learning Styles in Casting Instruction, Do Instructors Need to Know This Physics Stuff?, Learning Two-Handed Casting, Reaching for the Reach Cast
2008 SummerCasting for Recovery Fundraising Workshop, A Special Time, FFF Danish Casting Games, The Casting Clinic, Conclave 2008, Salmon Fly Casting, CBOG Meeting Agenda
2008 SpringDifference in Grip Types, Power Zone in Casting, this Side of Paradise, "Masters Odyssey" Revisited, Going For Distance, Ethics Committee, Double Hauling, A Big Testing Event, Spey Casting, Give Each Student a Tangible Gift
2008 FallTribute to Mel Krieger, Conclave Awards 2008, Orvis Guide to Better Fly Casting, Flycasting Literature, Casting Pleasures, Power, The Charthit, Pearls From a Master Study Group
2007 WinterReflections and Thanks, How to Increase FFF Membership, Style: A Different Approach, Rod Acceleration, FFF's Initial Continuing Education Workshop
2007 SummerIntro to the Double Spey, Casting Physics Simplified, Two Steps to Improve Practice, Agenda for Casting BOG Meeting-July 31, 2007, Teaching the Extremes, Rod Tip Path--Its Effect...
2007 SpringLine Control-Feeling It, Must a Certified Casting instructor Be Versatile?, Casting Certification Update Regarding Workshops, How Rod Action Can Affect Your Cast, The Belgian Cast
2007 FallCasting Physics Simplified-Part 2, Rod-Smoke: A Mostly True Story, Practicing With Two-Handed (Spey Rods), The Creeps, Product Review: Casting Analyzer, Flycasting Accuracy
2006 WinterA Teaching Technique: Hands On, Presenting Your Back Cast, What Makes a Good Casting Demonstrator?, More on "Tennis Elbow/Caster's Arm
2006 Spring/SummerThe Underhand Cast-Classic Style, Agenda for BOG meeting on 7/25/06 at Conclave, Demonstrate the Overhead Cast in Slow Motion, Teaching Beginner's Fly Casting-My Method
2006 FallPreparing for The Masters Odyssey, Distance Casting-Not Just For Show!, Spey Casting Techniques, Book Review, Casting and Tackle-More Fishing, Less Fussing, Flycasting Faults & Fixes
2005 WinterThe Snap T, Tight Loops, FFF 6-Month Membership Form, Order Form for CI & Masters Pins & Instructor Decals
2005 SummerThe Single Spey, Larry's Hybrid Cast, Instructor's Rod Program Form, Teaching Tips, Updating "The Essentials of Flycasting" Booklet
2005 SpringThe Snake Roll, The Six-Step Teaching Method, Test Preparation, The Square Clock
2005 FallTest Kits, A Continuing Education/Club Casting Program, Push or Pull, Fishing Courtesy, The Story of Dweedly
2004 WinterDeveloping a Certification Workshop, What Advice Would You Give Now?, Virtual Fly Casting
2004 SummerNew Fast Knots-Christopher 1 & 2, The Elusive Tick, Stop the Rod, The Three P's in Flycasting, What Happens When You Let Your Certification Lapse
2004 SpringTeaching your Six Yr. Old to Fly Cast, Lines for Two-Handed Rods, Remembering Leon Chandler & Jim Green
2004 FallCasting Elbow, The Essence of a Fly Cast, Ever Upward: The Spey-O, Casting Quiz
2003 SummerKids, Hula Hoops, and Casting Games: What Children Have Taught Us About Teaching
2003 SpringAnalyzing the Cast, A Tribute to Allan Rohrer 1928-2002, Wrist Taping
2003 FallCasting Tip, In Memoriam Dave Engerbretson 1936-2003, The Good Loops System, Two-Handed Instructor Certification Program Update, The Importance of Master Instructors
2002 WinterHow Does Line Stretch Affect the Cast?, 2001 NW Fly Casting Expo, Casting Skills Improvement Program
2002 SpringPrinciples of Learning in Flycasting Instruction, Casting Programs: Curricula, Insurance, Pay & Medical Preparedness, Teaching Casting Mechanics On-Stream, Helping Handle
2002 FallArm Styles, Flip the Paint-Really, A One-Hour Lesson Plan
2001 WinterThe Line-Hand Haul, Practice?, More of Your Favorite Teaching Tips
2001 SummerThree New Casting Games, Casting For Golden Mantled Ground Squirrels, The Loop Library-- An Idea For a Flycasting Challenge, Danish Fly Casting: A New Casting Game
2001 SpringUnder the Wind, Practicing to Spoken Commands, Hauling: Start Them Early, The Mel-O and the Indoor Shooting Head, Your Favorite Teaching Tips
2001 FallOn Casting Styles, To Find Your Inner Beginner, Cast With Your Other Hand, How Does Line Stretch Affect the Cast?, Getting Them Stream-Ready
2000 WinterDistance Casting: A Method For Improvement, Casting, Suggestions For Your Next Casting Class
2000 SummerThe South Fork Tuck-and-Reach Cast, Understanding Some Casting Fundamentals, The Loop Library Stretches to Keep You Fishing Longer
2000 SpringNews From the Board of Governors, Understanding Some Casting Fundamentals
2000 FallThe Questioning Teacher, Your Favorite Teaching Tip, Sounds Help Get the Feel, The Editor Needs Editing?
1999 WinterSpey Casting-Myths, Benefits & Differences, Good Form (The Roll Cast), Flick of the Tip, A Five-Count Cadence, The Loop Library
1999 SummerPower of the Subconscious, The Roll Casting Block, Send Them to the Bench, The Loop Library
1999 SpringA Six-Step Method, Making the Spey Transition, A Defense of False Casting, The loop Library
1998 WinterDouble Hauling, Ten Minutes A Day, Target Practice, Practicing On Plastic, Optimum Line Length
1998 SummerCasting Across the Head, The Line Hand, A Grass Leader For Rolls and Speys, The Loop Library
1998 SpringLearning, Corrective Statements, Videotape Teaching, Teaching a Tempo, The Loop Library
1998 FallWhat Are You Teaching?, Teaching Curve Mends, Spey Casting Call (The Sequel)
1997 WinterThe Lesson Plan-Your Guide to Better Casting Instruction, A Note On Timing the Haul, The One-Time Lesson, FFF "15 Most Common Casting Errors" Video Review, The Teacher & the Beginner
1997 SummerHow-To/Why-To, Only Back Casts-Only Forward Casts, Lawn Rolling, The Arm-Chair Caster
1997 SpringChanging a Caster's Muscle Memory, Pete's Tool Box, One More Cast (poem), The Tailing Loop Has a New Editor, What's Our Point?
1996 WinterThe Positive Stop, The Teaching Tripod in Flycasting Instruction, A Teaching Tip, Common Sense Fly Casting
1996 SummerGovernors: What They Teach and How They Teach It, Is It the Art of Fly Fishing or Fly Casting?, Watch Your Backcast?
1996 SpringReflections on Taking the Master Certification Test, When Common Sense Isn't
1996 FallDynamics of Tailing and Open Loops, Take the Flop Out of the Wrist
1995 WinterThe Fly Rod, Perfecting the Thirty Foot Cast, Instructors Plus, Sometimes It's the Equipment!, A Tall Tale From British Columbia
1995 SummerRevised Casting Program, The Long Rod, One Thing at a Time, Should You Always Watch Your Line?, Watch Your Lip
1995 SpringTeaching a Crowd: Partner Up, Brush Up On Your Casting Stroke, The Harker's Island Release, An Instruction Suggestion, and more
1995 FallKeep It Simple, Club Outing, Simple Is Best, Diary of a Discouraged Fly Fishing Guide